USPTO可專利性教戰守則 - TWO-STEP TEST , 申請專利.專利研討會.專利申請-聯誠國際專利商標聯合事務所
USPTO可專利性教戰守則 - TWO-STEP TEST

本所專利部電子組潘榮恩主任

101規定可專利性判斷,其規定之順序為在專利審查時判斷112,102,103可專利條件之前,這可見於MPEP2103的規定,其中標題就反映出審查委員應該遵守的審查邏輯!
MPEP2103
規定審查委員判斷可專利性的流程:

·         I.DETERMINE WHAT APPLICANT HAS INVENTED AND IS SEEKING TO PATENT
A.Identify and Understand Any Utility for the Invention
B.Review the Detailed Disclosure and Specific Embodiments of the Invention To Understand What the Applicant Has Invented
C.Review the Claims

·         II.CONDUCT A THOROUGH SEARCH OF THE PRIOR ART

·         III.DETERMINE WHETHER THE CLAIMED INVENTION COMPLIES WITH 35 U.S.C. 101
A.Consider the Breadth of 35 U.S.C. 101 Under Controlling Law

·         IV.EVALUATE APPLICATION FOR COMPLIANCE WITH 35 U.S.C. 112
A.Determine Whether the Claimed Invention Complies with 35 U.S.C. 112(b) or Pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. 112, Second Paragraph Requirements
B.Determine Whether the Claimed Invention Complies with 35 U.S.C. 112(a) or 35 U.S.C. 112, First Paragraph Requirements
(A) adequate written description,
(B) enablement, and
(C) best mode.

·         V.DETERMINE WHETHER THE CLAIMED INVENTION COMPLIES WITH 35 U.S.C. 102 AND 103

·         VI.CLEARLY COMMUNICATE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND THEIR BASES

USPTO審查可專利性教戰守則重點在於提出了「兩步驟測試,two-step test」,如下流程:
STEP 1
判斷是否專利請求項為流程、機器、製作方法或是物質成份等可專利標的?這是美國專利法第101條規定的可專利標的。
如果不是,也就不可專利。
如果是,繼續下一步驟。
STEP 2
有兩個部分:
part 1
,是否專利請求項涉及自然律、自然現象或是抽象概念?如果不是,就是可專利標的;如果是,要經過part 2檢視,是否專利請求項引述了實質超越(significantly more)前述不可專利(自然律、自然現象、抽象概念)的其他元件?如果不是,為不可專利標的;如果是,則為可專利得標的(這是司法例外情事)。


上述司法例外,就是是否專利請求項即便是引用了自然法則、抽象概念等不可專利的事物,但是例外是,如果涵蓋了實質超越這些不可專利事物的其他元件,則還是為可專利標的,這些例外的事物(實質超越)比如:

  • 有關其他技術或是技術領域的改良(Improvements to another technology or technical field
  • 電腦本身功能的改良(Improvements to the functioning of the computer itself
  • 使用特定機器或例外手段(Applying the judicial exception with, or by use of, a particular machine 
  • 產生轉換或貢獻形成另一個狀態或事物(Effecting a transformation or reduction of a particular article to a different state or thing
  • 加入特定非一般習知的限制而有貢獻的條件(Adding a specific limitation other than what is well-understood, routine and conventional in the field, or adding unconventional steps that confine the claim to a particular useful application
  • 其他有意義採用例外情事的限制(Other meaningful limitations beyond generally linking the use of the judicial exception to a particular technological environment

 

 
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